Comparing Implicit and Explicit Instruction in the Learning Gain of the Linguistic Features
The study addresses the issue of language instruction and aims to examine the facilitative effects of different types of instruction, i.e., implicit and explicit, on the acquisition of English present perfect tenses. The 83 university students who participated in the study were assigned to three groups: 28 students in the implicit group, 29 in the explicit group, and 26 in the control group. The two experimental groups received grammar instruction with different conditions: the implicit group was provided with input enhancement, clarification requests and recasts, and the explicit group received language instruction with metalinguistic explanation feedback while completing rule-search tasks. The results indicated that the explicit group outperformed the implicit group in both awareness and production post-tests. Based on the results, insight into form-related pedagogical implications is provided along with the limitations of the study.